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Mar-23-2017                  
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Hair Cloning
HAIR CLONING
 
 
Terminology
Index
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
 
 
A
 
Alopecia: The general scientific term for hair loss.  There are many subtypes of Alopecia including: Androgenetic Alopecia, Alopecia Areata, Traction Alopecia, Alopecia Universalis.
 
Alopecia Areata: An autoimmune disease that causes the body to form antibodies against some hair follicles. Alopecia Areata causes sudden smooth, circular patches of hair loss. There are no known cures and in many cases the hair grows back on is own.
 
Alopecia Totalis: An autoimmune disease similar to Alopecia Areata but that results in the loss of all hair on the scalp. It may begin as Alopecia Areata and progress into Alopecia Totalis.
 
Alopecia Universalis: An autoimmune disease that results in the complete loss of all hair over the entire body, including eyelashes and eyebrows.
 
Anagen: The active growing phase of the hair cycle.  It lasts approximately for 3 years with a range of 2-6 years.
 
Anagen Effluvium: Loss of hair that is in the anagen or growing phase. This is the type of hair loss that is associated with chemotherapy or radiation treatment.
 
Androgen: General term for any male hormone. The major androgen is testosterone.
 
Androgenetic Alopecia: Hair loss that results from a genetic predisposition that makes follicles sensitive to the effects of DHT.   This is the most common form of hair loss and can also affect women.  Other terms for this condition include:  MPB, male pattern baldness, female pattern baldness, hereditary Alopecia and Androgenic Alopecia.
 
Anterior: Frontal part of the scalp.
 
Antiandrogen: A substance which interferes with the function of an androgen, or male sex hormone, by taking over the androgen's receptors preventing their attachment to receptor cells, interfering with their metabolism, or decreasing their production in the body.
 
Aromatase: An enzyme that converts androgens (testosterone) into estrogens. This enzyme complex is located in estrogen-producing cells found in ovaries, placenta, testicles, fat cells, and brain tissues.
 
Apoptosis: The programmed death of a cell. This type of cell death occurs by fragmentation of membranes that are then eliminated.
 
Atopic Dermatitis: An allergic response in the skin that causes itching and flaking (also see eczema).
 
Atrophy: The wasting away or a diminution in the size of a follicle so that is cannot produce terminal hair anymore.
 
Autoimmune disorder: A disease resulting from a disordered immune reaction in which antibodies from the immune system attack one's own tissue.
 
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B
 
Beta Catenin: A protein that is associated with cells that are destined to become hair follicle cells.
 
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C
 
Catagen: The end of the active growing phase of the life cycle of the hair. It is a transitional stage between the growing phase (anagen) and the resting stage (telogen). In catagen all growth ceases and the "club" hairs are formed.
 
Club Hair: A hair that has stopped growing and is in the categen or telogen phase. It is attached to the skin with a "club-like" root, but will eventually be pushed out and replaced by a new growing hair.
 
Cobble stoning: Cobble stoning occurs in almost all hair transplant procedures where "plugs" are used.  It is caused when the plugs that are inserted do not heal flush with the skin leaving the scalp lumpy.
 
Compression: Occurs sometimes when grafts are put into slits when the existing tissue 'compresses' the follicle. This can cause poor growth and/or improper direction of the hair.
 
Cortex: The main structural part of the hair shaft that accounts for most of its size and strength. The cortex surrounds the medulla and is filled with keratin fibers.
 
Corticosteroid: A drug (steroid) used clinically to suppress inflammation of the tissues and to suppress the immune response.
 
Couvre: Couvre is a colored cream used as a cosmetic to fill in the bald spots on the scalp. It blends in with the hair color and temporarily gives the appearance of more hair.
 
Crown: The top or highest part of the head.
 
Cuticle: The outer surface of hair composed of overlapping scales made of colorless keratin protein. It gives hair luster and shine and also provides some of its strength.
 
 
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D
 
Dermal papilla: A group of specialized cells at the base of the hair follicle that give rise to the hair follicle at birth and supplies the materials necessary for hair growth during the life of the person.
 
Dermatoscope: A hand held lighted magnifier/microscope used by some dermatologists in looking for exclamation hairs, shaft diameter to diagnose Androgenetic Alopecia, to evaluate scarring, etc.
 
Dermis: The skin is comprised of two layers, the outer layer which is the epidermis, and the inner layer which is the dermis.
 
DHT: Testosterone, a male hormone, is converted into DHT or Dihydrotestosterone in various tissues of the body and the skin.  The enzyme 5 alpha reductase converts testosterone into its more potent form DHT.   DHT is responsible for causing hair loss known as Androgenetic Alopecia and for stimulating the growth of body hair.
 
Donor site: The region of the scalp where hairs are harvested from for transplantation into balding areas of the scalp.  The donor area usually at the back or side of the head contains hairs that are unaffected by DHT.
 
Double blind study: A scientific study where neither the subjects nor the researchers know who is receiving the drug or the placebo.  This is done to ensure that the results are totally objective.
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E
 
Epidermis: The tough outer protective layer of the skin.
 
Epithelial Cells: Cells that come from the epithelium. This is the covering of internal and external surfaces of the body, including the lining of vessels and other small cavities. A large number of epithelial cells joined together by small amounts of cementing substances form the epithelium.
 
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F
 
5-Alpha-Reductase: An enzyme that converts testosterone into a more potent form called dihydrotestosterone (DHT).  There are two types of 5-AR, type 1 and type 2.  Type 1 is found mainly in the skin and type 2 is found in the follicles and in the genital tissues.
 
Fibroblasts: Fibroblasts are the connective tissue cells of the body.  They produce long strands of proteins that act as fibers in tissues. In the skin they produce collagen, reticulin and other elastic fibers. At the base of the hair follicle fibroblasts may help to preserve the 3-dimensional conformation of the dermal papilla. 
 
Finasteride: The active ingredient in Propecia and Proscar, Finasteride inhibits the enzyme 5-alpha reductase type 2 that converts testosterone into DHT.  This lowering of DHT in the body leads to a halting of hair loss and causes regrowth of hair in people suffering from Androgenetic Alopecia.  Finasteride is also useful in reducing excessive body hair in women which is known as Hirsutism.
 
Flap: A type of hair replacement surgery in which a flap of hair bearing scalp is taken from the side of the head and transferred to bald areas of the scalp.  The flap is usually still attached to the scalp on one side to maintain the blood supply to the flap.  There are several techniques including the Fleming-Meyer flap, rotational flap, Preauricular flap and the Juri flap.
 
Follicle: A tubular sheath below the surface of the skin that contains the mechanism that creates the hair.
 
Follicular Neogenesis: Creation of a brand new follicle by inserting cultured cell structures into the skin which develop into hair follicles. Also called hair cloning.
 
 
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G
 
Grafts: Transplanted hairs that are removed from one part of the scalp and are grafted, or transplanted, into the balding area of the scalp. Some commonly used grafting techniques are slit grafts, micro grafting and mini grafting.
 
 
 
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H
 
Hair cloning: Cloning hairs involves extracting hair follicle cells and culturing them in a laboratory until they multiply several times and then reimplanting them into the scalp where they form new follicles and begin producing new hairs.
 
Hair lift: Surgical procedure used to eliminate large areas of bald scalp by lifting and moving the entire hair-bearing scalp in an upward and forward direction.
 
Hair integration: See hair weaving.
 
Hair matrix: Region where hair and the structures that compose it (cortex, cuticle and medulla) are made.
 
Hair Multiplication: Reactivation of dormant follilces by culturiung stem cells and injecting them into the folliclatr unti this reviving the follovle adn causing hair growth.
 
Hair piece: A base that is covered with human or synthetic hair that is attached to the scalp to give the illusion of natural hair.  Also know as a toupee, wig or hair system. 
 
Hair shaft: The term given to the part of the hair that is above the skin.
 
Hair pluck test: The hair pluck test is used as a diagnostic test for Alopecia and is helpful in determining whether or not a telogen effluvium is the cause of hair loss. A group of 20-30 hairs is plucked and then examined by the doctor.
 
Hair weaving: A process by which a hairpiece is attached to existing hair on scalp through braiding or another interweaving process.
 
Hamilton scale: A scale designed to classify the severity of hair loss in men created by Dr Hamilton.
 
Hirsutism: The excessive growth of facial and/or body hair in women. It is usually characterized by the growth of coarse terminal hairs on androgen-dependent areas of the body such as the chin, chest, abdomen, and anterior thighs. Principal causes include abnormal regulation of androgen production by the pituitary gland, elevated androgen production by the adrenal glands or ovaries related to the presence of tumors or cysts.
 
 
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I
 
Inflammation: Inflammation is the reaction of living tissues to injury, infection or irritation. Inflamed tissues are characterized by pain, swelling, redness and heat. Anything that stimulates the inflammatory response is said to be inflammatory.
 
Intermediate hairs: Hairs that are between vellus and terminal hairs. They contain a small amount of pigment but are smaller and thinner than terminal hairs.
 
 
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J
 
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K
 
Keratosis pilaris: A slow progressive disorder where pinkish-to-tan bumps form on the skin and become darker over time and commonly fuse, forming wart like growths.  The bumps may form on the buttocks, back of arms or even the back and are associated with eczema.
 
Keratin: A tough protein that is the primary constituent of hair, nails and skin.
 
Keratinocyte: A skin cell from the uppermost layer of the epidermis.
 
Ketokonazole: An antifungal agent that also has antiandrogenic properties. This is the active ingredient in the shampoo Nizoral.
 
 
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L
 
Linear graft: A method of hair transplantation where transplanted hairs are removed using a linear (elliptical) punch, also called slot grafts.
 
Ludwig Scale: Scale that measures the severity of female pattern hair loss.
 
 
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M
 
Male pattern baldness: Also known as MPB or Androgenetic Alopecia.  This is the most common type of hair loss that is caused by hormones, and affects the central and frontal area of the scalp and often results in a pronounced horseshoe pattern.
 
Megasession: A transplant procedure in which a large number of grafts usually 1500-3000 are performed in a single operation. This is no longer done as it results in a low yield of successful grafts due to the inadequate blood supply.
 
Micrograft: A small hair graft consisting of one or two hairs.
 
Miniaturization: The gradual shrinking of the hair follicle in size which results in eventual baldness as the follicle produces thinner and thinner hair until its no longer able to produce terminal hair and can only produce fine vellus hair.
 
Minoxidil: A pharmaceutical compound that was originally used as an anti-hypertensive medication. Approved for use to treat hair loss under the name Rogaine, Minoxidil is believed to stimulate hair growth by opening the potassium channels in the follicle.
 
 
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N
 
Norwood Scale: A scale that measures the severity of male pattern hair loss that is based on the Hamilton Scale.
 
 
 
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O
 
Omega 3 fatty acids: Omega-three fatty acid is a polyunsaturated fat found in seafood, particularly fish that is fatty. Omega 3 fatty acids have an anti-inflammatory effect and have been show to have a beneficial effect in people suffering from lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis. Healthy skin and hair are maintained by fat and fat helps in the absorption, and transport through the bloodstream of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.
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P
 
Propecia: The first FDA approved pill for hair loss.  Propecia contains 1mg of Finasteride which inhibits the enzyme 5-alpha reductase type 2 that converts testosterone into DHT.  This lowering of DHT in the body leads to a halting of hair loss and causes regrowth of hair in people suffering from Androgenetic Alopecia. 
 
Proscar: A medication for treating an enlarged prostate (BPH) that contains 5mg of Finasteride, the same ingredient that is in Propecia.  Some men use Proscar instead of Propecia since its cheaper when cut into 5 pieces.
 
Pruritus: The medical term for itching, pruritus is common in people suffering from hair loss.
 
Punch graft: A group of ten to twenty hairs that has been removed from the donor area with the use of a circular punch.
 
 
 
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Q
 
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R
 
Recipient site: The area of the scalp where the hair grafts are transplanted into.
 
Rejection: When the body rejects some foreign body or tissue that has been introduced into it.
 
Retin-A: Derivative of vitamin A, which is required for proper bone development, night vision, and skin integrity. Retin-A has been used extensively to combat aging of the skin and acts as a chemical peel.  Some hair loss formulations include Retin-A to increase the absorption of Minoxidil.  Excessive Retin-A use can result in hair loss.
 
Rogaine: The brand name for Minoxidil – See Minoxidil for more info.
 
 
 
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S
 
Scalp reduction: A surgical procedure designed to reduce the size of the balding areas in which an ellipse of bald scalp is surgically removed and sutured closed.
 
Scarring Alopecia: Inflammation of the hair follicles can lead to scarring Alopecia. This form of Alopecia is easy to identify because rough patches on the surface of the scalp made up of small blood vessels and tissue are present. Scarring Alopecia has many different causes such as bacterial, viral and fungal infections.
 
Sebaceous glands: Fatty glands found in hair follicles throughout the body that secrete oil into the hair and surrounding skin.
 
Seborrheic dermatitis: A form of inflammatory skin rash that results from an over activity of the sebaceous glands in the skin. Treatment often includes a mild hydrocortisone-containing cream.
 
Sebum: A thick greasy substance that is secreted by sebaceous glands that consists of fat and cellular debris.
 
Shock fallout: The loss of hair that often occurs after hair transplantation.  The resulting trauma causes some of the hairs to go into the resting phase and some of the existing hairs are lost.   The loss can be permanent or temporary.
 
Skin Biopsy: A skin biopsy is an analysis done on a small piece of tissue that is removed from the skin with a small punch.  The tissue is microscopically examined and is used to help make a diagnosis about a skin or hair problem. A biopsy may help determine proper treatment for a skin condition.
 
Slit graft: A graft of three to four hairs inserted into a slit made by a scalpel.
 
Spironolactone: Also known as Aldactone, this is potassium sparring diuretic with anti-androgenic effects. It is most commonly used for acne and is also been used to treat Androgenetic Alopecia. Women can take it orally but men need to use it topically because of the potential for feminizing effects when taken orally.
 
Stem cells: Cells with the ability to divide for indefinite periods in culture and to give rise to specialized cells.
 
Suture: A synthetic or natural based line that is used to close a wound.
 
Systemic side effects: Side effects from a drug or treatment that that are experienced throughout the body.
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T
 
Telogen: The resting phase of the life cycle of the hair. This phase lasts for 3-4 months and ends as new hairs (anagen) emerge and push out the old telogen hairs which is was causes shedding to occur.
 
Telogen Effluvium: Telogen effluvium is an abnormal loss of hair due to alteration of the normal hair cycle. Normally, most of the hairs are in the growth stage and only one hundred hairs per day fall from the scalp. When telogen effluvium occurs, a greater proportion of the hairs enter the resting phase of the cycle and hair shedding is greater than normal.
 
Temporal recession: Hair loss that occurs in the temple regions where the hair line retreats leaving a V shaped pattern.
 
Terminal hair: Long coarse hairs that are pigmented, fully developed, and found on the scalp, beard, pubic area, arms and legs.
 
Testosterone: The male hormone that is released by both the adrenal gland and the testicles and promotes the development of male characteristics.  Testosterone is also present in women.
 
Tissue Engineering: The development of a new generation of materials or devices capable of specific interactions with biological tissues. These combine novel materials with living cells to yield functional tissue equivalents. Such systems are useful for organ tissue replacement where there is a limited availability of donor organs or where, in some cases, (e.g., nerves) no natural replacements are available.
 
Topical: Any solution that is administered by applying it to the surface of the skin.  In theory this limits the activity to the area it was applied to and prevents side effects, but in reality certain medications can be absorbed through the skin into the blood stream.
 
Traction Alopecia: Hair loss that occurs due to a strain put on the hairs. Traction Alopecia is commonly seen with braids, pony tails and other hairstyles which place a constant tension on the hair and the scalp.
 
Transsection: Damage done to the hair follicle during harvesting of the donor hair or dissection of the grafts when the scalpel accidentally cuts follicles.  This results in the loss of the follicle.
 
Tretinoin: The generic term for Retin-A, a vitamin A derivative.
 
Trichotillomania: An obsessive-compulsive disorder that causes a person to pull their own hair out which can lead to permanent hair loss.  The hair loss tends to be localized and the resulting patch is angular in configuration. Treatment usually requires some counseling and/or medication.
 
 
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U
 
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V
 
Vasodilator: Medication that causes the blood vessels to dilate or expand.
 
Vellus hair: Fine colorless short hair covering most of the body surface. Vellus hair replaces lanugo shortly after birth and may be transformed into terminal hairs under the influence of androgens. In people with Androgenetic Alopecia vellus hairs replace terminal hairs. Vellus hairs lack a central medulla which accounts for their fine and colorless appearance.
 
Vertex: The crown area of the scalp.
 
 
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W
 
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X
 
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Y
 
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Z
 
Zinc: A mineral whose deficiency causes hair loss. Zinc applied topically has reportedly been show to inhibit DHT.
 
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