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Topic Title: Galea: Scalp Muscle that causes Hair Loss
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Created On: 02/10/2011 06:26 PM
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 02/10/2011 06:26 PM
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MikeGore
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This Galea seems to be the cause of hair loss:

It is a tendon-like tissue which exists only on the top of the scalp. This GALEA looks like a helmet and its shape matches exactly the worst cases of male pattern baldness, all this makes all the pieces of the puzzle fit into place and one must conclude that it plays a role in hair loss. This GALEA is attached to muscles all around the perimeter of the head and these muscles pull on it and stretch it in all directions. That's why all bald men look like they have a stretched, shiny scalp. This tightened GALEA chokes off the blood flow and this causes the DHT to have a greater damaging effect on the top of the scalp than anywhere else. In fact, we only go bald in those areas where this GALEA exists and nowhere else on the scalp.


First I thought skull expansion was the reason, but this makes more sense than that. It because of GALEA!

Forum after forum, post after post, where is the freaking solution to hair loss. Google Hair loss cure and nothing really new comes up. Why?

The galea is a theory that make sense to me quite a lot. As with all theories, if a person attempts to debunk or discredit a theory, you can be sure that a reason can always be found.

If it is this Galea that is the cause of hair loss. What can be done? Scalp exercises, any herbs that would affect the galea?

I know people like debates, but I don't think it would really hurt if you looked into things which would release tension or perhaps reduce thickness of the galea muscles, or massage the head specifically to relieve galea muscle tension. With the galea muscle in mind, the massage should be done in a different way. Perhaps occipito-frontalis and tempor-parietalis muscle should be lifted upwards or massaged to relived the tension. So basically a little emphasis on these muscle when massaging rather then just massaging the top of the head.

Maybe there are some dietary factors that affect the inflammation of this muscle, permeability or contraction etc. Maybe supplements and herbs that help to relieve tension in muscles would help hair loss. Here are some I found that are muscle relaxers. Interestingly, they also help with hair loss.

Cayenne, Magnesium, Vitamin D, Chamomile, Licorice, GABA, Horsetail, Epsom Salt, Lavender, Rosemary, Catnip, Horse Radish, Caffeine

Mike

 02/10/2011 06:53 PM
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Farrel
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The quote you posted makes no sense. The follicles sensitivity to androgens is actually programmed into the DNA of the cells within the hair follicle.

If you take hair follicle cells and put them in a petri dish in a lab they respond to androgens in the same way.

Which is why a hair transplant works. If the Galea was the cause then every time you moved hair follicles to the place where they were lost before, they would die all over again.

Also, everyone has a galea, so why doesn't everyone go bald then?

Hair follicles are not "choked" to death.

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Disclaimer - I am not a physician or an expert and my advice should not be considered medical/expert advice. - If you follow my opinions and/or advice you do so at your own risk.
 02/10/2011 06:56 PM
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Farrel
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In fact, we only go bald in those areas where this GALEA exists and nowhere else on the scalp.


BTW This is not even scientifically correct. I have thinning on the sides of my head and some people can thin out all over their scalp, not just on the top.



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 02/10/2011 06:57 PM
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highsierra
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Yeah, this Galea thing came up a few years back on this forum......there was even some knucklehead who was going to have it removed from under his scalp! But if it caused baldness, and all men have this muscle under their scalp, then why don't ALL men go bald?

So are you supposed to put that catnip, horseradish, etc. on your head? I would add ginger, thyme, dill weed, eye of newt, bat feathers, chicken manure.........
 02/10/2011 07:08 PM
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Farrel
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Here's an easy way to test if you don't have enough blood flow to your scalp. Take a needle, prick your scalp, and see if any blood comes out.

The fact is that your skin needs a constant supply of blood, otherwise the cells die and the skin turns black and falls off.

If you have skin covering your head, and it's not black and decaying, then there is an adequate blood supply there.

Furthermore, your body can create new blood capilliaries whenever it needs to, it's called angiogenesis.

That's why transplanted hair follicles don't die, the body generates more blood vessels around them to sustain them within hours of a hair transplant.

If you put a living hair follicle into a bald scalp with inadequate blood flow the follicle would simply die.

If that were the case severely bald men would never be able to have a transplant, but it is not the case because their bodies simply generate new blood vessels to support the transplanted hair follicles.

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Disclaimer - I am not a physician or an expert and my advice should not be considered medical/expert advice. - If you follow my opinions and/or advice you do so at your own risk.
 02/10/2011 07:14 PM
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MikeGore
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I thought many people who had hair transplants experienced problems. Either wouldn't grow completely or be lost later on. I even read that people who had ht and used a dermaroller experienced growth of those transplanted hairs.

If the transplanted hair in some cases is a success ( meaning not losing that transplanted hair for 30 years), it may be because that follicle has not be exposed to the DHT from the region it was taken from.

This is a just a theory and I'm just thinking out loud. Suppose that good circulation means, that the circulation carries away the DHT, toxins and other harmful stuff from the areas in the scalp. Now the follicle on the side of the hair probably has more circulation and less accumulated DHT. Thus the follicle is not damaged. So that follicle when transplanted into the new location can grow.

It can also be that the hair transplant pierce the galea...lol :-0

It is still related to genetics and hormones in my opinion, since testesterone could possibly affect muscle size, contraction and inflammation etc. But it is also related to genetics. Certain head shapes will be more affected by the galea muscle. As mentioned in the quote; the more curvature there is, the more downward force upon that area.

Why is it that bald people have a shiny cue ball and it looks muscular. You have probably seen those types.

Hair loss on the side could still happen from other non-mpb type hair loss.

Why is MPB almost the exact same pattern among sufferers. Non of the current theories explain this pattern. Ok, it may be caused by DHT, blood circulation etc. Propecia, minoxidil may help. But, why, why the similar pattern. Imagine having to lose hair with the exact opposite of the horse shoe pattern.

This galea muscle, is very very similar to the pattern of hair loss. The scientific proof is the biology anatomy books.

I just posted it for people to see. You can try out things, or you could just ignore it.

What I am saying is not backed by any scientific proof with regards to mpb. You take it or leave it, your choice.

Edited: 02/10/2011 at 07:22 PM by MikeGore
 02/10/2011 07:29 PM
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Bryan
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How do you explain the donor dominance of hair transplants? It's not just that growing hair follicles transplanted to balding scalp continue to grow (well, most of the time), it works the OTHER way, too: balding scalp hair follicles transplanted to other areas of the body continue to go bald, right on schedule! How does your "galea" theory explain that?
 02/10/2011 07:52 PM
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MikeGore
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It's not just that growing hair follicles transplanted to balding scalp continue to grow (well, most of the time), it works the OTHER way, too: balding scalp hair follicles transplanted to other areas of the body continue to go bald, right on schedule!


I actually already answered that here:
Suppose that good circulation means, that the circulation carries away the DHT, toxins and other harmful stuff from the areas in the scalp. Now the follicle on the side of the hair probably has more circulation and less accumulated DHT. Thus the follicle is not damaged. So that follicle when transplanted into the new location can grow.


Imagine a plant in a garden. If that plant has been exposed to horrible things which damage it and affects it in such away for such a long time, that plant may or may not be saved. It depends if its too late or not, right. Suppose a plant in your house, that you have neglected to water, and its withering, if its not too late, you water it and the plant revives again. If you are too late, and the damage is severe, even if you take that plant from your house and plant it in your garden, with rain and sunlight, it still may not revive.

So, this is why hair transplant are a varying thing also. It depends on the damage, the duration of the damage the follicle has suffered.


It's not just that growing hair follicles transplanted to balding scalp continue to grow (well, most of the time)

What you said here perfectly makes my point. "well, most of the time". That is because if that follicle hasn't been damaged in its healthy environment. How long is it going to survive there. 20 years, about the same duration that our other follicles was able to withstand the harsh environment it was in.


balding scalp hair follicles transplanted to other areas of the body continue to go bald

It will continue to go bald because it has been damaged.

Edited: 02/10/2011 at 08:08 PM by MikeGore
 02/10/2011 08:01 PM
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Farrel
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I thought many people who had hair transplants experienced problems. Either wouldn't grow completely or be lost later on.


That usually happens when hair follicles are damaged during the process of either harvesting them, or implanting them. Follicles that are transplanted correctly into totally bald scalp grow just fine.

I even read that people who had ht and used a dermaroller experienced growth of those transplanted hairs.


Well you have just disproved your own theory then because a dermaroller only penetrates the top layer of skin, it goes nowhere near to the galea.

Also, if you create small incisions in the scalp it can lead to growth factors being released into the area via the blood to help with the healing, these growth factors can stimulate hair growth.

However this has nothing to do with the galea at all.



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Disclaimer - I am not a physician or an expert and my advice should not be considered medical/expert advice. - If you follow my opinions and/or advice you do so at your own risk.
 02/10/2011 08:06 PM
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MikeGore
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The dermaroller doesn't disprove anything. It proves the importance of blood flow. It doesn't have to touch the galea to be beneficial.

It's just a variable to consider.
 02/10/2011 08:35 PM
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Farrel
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The dermaroller DOES disprove your theory because it does not go deep enough to affect blood flow or the galea.

It's purpose is simply to penetrate the top layer of skin so that topicals can easily penetrate through the skin. That's why it was invented.

The blood flow theory has been debunked over and over again yet people still like to believe in it.

Why that is, is a mystery to me, but it's probably because it's a tangible thing that seems simple to understand.

If you believe the cause is as simple as a lack of blood flow then you can make the cure simple too, just increase the blood flow.

I guess that's why it's such an appealing theory for many people, even though it's been disproven.

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Disclaimer - I am not a physician or an expert and my advice should not be considered medical/expert advice. - If you follow my opinions and/or advice you do so at your own risk.
 02/10/2011 08:41 PM
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MikeGore
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okay, you are right I am wrong.

Don't consider Galea. Don't try out new things. Don't consider other avenues.

buy propecia and minoxidil, they are the best we have
 02/10/2011 09:04 PM
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Farrel
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It's not about me being wrong or right. I'm not a scientist. It's the scientists and researchers who have proven that blood flow, or lack thereof, does not cause MPB.

That's why it's known as androgenetic alopecia. It was given that name because it's caused by androgens, and it's a genetic condition.

Trying new things is a good idea, however increasing blood flow is not a new thing, it's an old thing.

When I started losing my hair over 20 years ago people talked about massaging your scalp to increase blood flow and hanging upside down. Those things don't work.

Rogaine and Propecia are not perfect, but they were a step forward from massaging your scalp to try increase blood flow.

But now you're saying because they are not perfect, let's go backwards in time and try something "new", which is actually something old and debunked.

If that's your idea of progress then feel free to try it.

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Disclaimer - I am not a physician or an expert and my advice should not be considered medical/expert advice. - If you follow my opinions and/or advice you do so at your own risk.
 02/10/2011 09:42 PM
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Bryan
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Originally posted by: MikeGore

Suppose that good circulation means, that the circulation carries away the DHT, toxins and other harmful stuff from the areas in the scalp. Now the follicle on the side of the hair probably has more circulation and less accumulated DHT. Thus the follicle is not damaged. So that follicle when transplanted into the new location can grow.


By the way, the blood circulation doesn't "carry away" DHT in the sense you mean. The DHT that adversely affects hair follicles is almost entirely DHT that was created within the hair follicles themselves. In other words, DHT isn't much of an endocrine hormone, it's mostly a paracrine or autocrine hormone. It doesn't do much when it comes to traveling through the bloodstream to affect other tissues.

And here's a second "by the way" for you: galeotomies (the surgical removal of the galea, to prevent or treat male pattern baldness) used to be popular in Europe decades ago, but have now lost their appeal. Why is that? BECAUSE THEY DON'T WORK! Here is a comment by a Finnish doctor in a medical journal article:

"...In 1963, Ponten reported that after frontal galeotomy he could not find any objective improvement in his 56 patients and he still holds this view concerning this operation (personal communication, 1976).

"The present author has seen several patients who have undergone frontal galeotomy and later developed an advanced degree of MPB. The popularity of this operation has waned."
 02/10/2011 11:00 PM
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Celco
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Originally posted by: MikeGore

This Galea seems to be the cause of hair loss:

First I thought skull expansion was the reason, but this makes more sense than that. It because of GALEA!


If this is the case then why don't women go bald like men do? They have Galea as well.



-------------------------
1.25mg Fin daily
Minox foam or liquid intermittently
Nizoral shampoo every 2-3 days
----------------
We need something better than Fin approved that targets the scalp only.
We need much better hair growth stimulants.
 02/11/2011 04:02 AM
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mintyfresh
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Originally posted by: MikeGore

First I thought skull expansion was the reason, but this makes more sense than that. It because of GALEA!

Mike


every theory starts with a thought, no problem with that, but then scientific testing and the gathering of data and evidence shows us what is reality,

Science shows us that what makes sense to us, more often than not turns out to be false, reality is usually more complex than we imagine

only evidence counts
 03/15/2011 03:30 AM
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cyberprimate
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I'll advocate the galea hypothesis but in a different way from MikeGore. My hypothesis combines both androgen and galea/blood flow theories. I'll base my understanding of the role of galea and blood flow on two recent studies that have been pretty much ignored as far as i know. The whole idea is not that the galea aponeurotica is the sole cause of mpb, but that it is the one substantial contribucting factor, in the sense that its presence multiplies the levels of dht production in the follicles.

We all know that all scalp hair have a negative reaction to dht, including on the horseshoe area (as opposed to body hair that up to a certain level have stimulated growth when in presence of dht). Horse shoe hair are also affected by mpb but not to the point of causing a substantial esthetic problem. So why are galea follicles more affected by dht than off galea follicles on the scalp? The dominant hypothesis is that there's a genetic difference between galea follicles and off galea ones. I've never found that idea convincing as it fails to explain why the development of hair thinning on the galea tends generally to be faster on regions of the galea where the galea tightness is mechanically highest because of skull angles, namely the vertex and the frontalis. The idea that there is a fundamental genetic difference between horseshoe follicles and galea follicles is pretty acceptable in thoery. After all there seems to be a genetic difference between scalp follicles and body follicles, so why not a second follicular difference, on the scalp this time? But I reckon the idea that there may be a third genetic difference between vertex/frontalis follicles and the rest of the galea follicles, seems a bit much to not invite us to further questioning...

Based on two studies that I'll post at the bottom of this post, here's my current hypothesis concerning these various differences of follicular reactions we see on all regions of the scalp. The quotes are taken from the two studies I've mentioned.

1. The scalp has 5 layers that are like "glued" together (although one can separate them in surgery). This is not my opinion but an objective observation. So when the surrounding muscles are pulling on the galea, they tighten the galea and the dermis above it, that layer that contains the follicles and the blood vessels.
"Mechanistically, the scalp behaves like a drum skin with tensioning muscles around the periphery. These muscle groups - the frontalis, occipitalis, and periauricular muscles and to a minor degree the temporalis - can create a "tight" scalp when chronically active." (second study)

2. Because it's tightened, the dermis is thinner than normal (just like a stretched rubber piece gets thinner and longer than when not stretched), and this thinner dermis gives less space for blood vessels to flow blood and the oxygen it contains, hence the hypoxia in the region.
"There is a relative microvascular insufficiency to regions of the scalp that lose hair in male pattern baldness. Because the blood supply to the scalp enters through the periphery, a reduction in blood flow would be most apparent at the distal ends of the vessels, specifically, the vertex and frontal peaks". (first study)

3. This hypoxia then causes a greater dht conversion in the follicles on the galea

"The enzymatic conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone is oxygen dependent. In low-oxygen environments, the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone is favored; whereas in high-oxygen environments, more testosterone is converted to estradiol. We have identified a previously unreported tissue hypoxia (condition in which a region is deprived of adequate oxygen supply) in bald scalp compared with hair-bearing scalp." (first study)

4. This higher production of dht by the follicles on the galea damages the follicles' structure and they miniaturize over time. We get bald...
"Areas of the scalp with sparse hair growth have been shown to be relatively hypoxic, have slow capillary refill, and to have high levels of dihydrotestosterone". (second study)

To sum it up:

Tight galea >> reduced blow flow >> hypoxia (lack of oxygen) >> higher dht conversion by follicles >> gradual and long term follicle damage >> thinning hair


Now just a word on the 1979 Nordström study. One can think that the conclusions of it are adamant and that the galea case is closed. But I'm questioning the absoluteness of the conclusion of that study. Why? Imagine that living many years in one environment "A" causes a long lasting alteration of an organism and damages it gradually. If you transfer this organism in a safe environment "B", the long lasting effect of the environment "A" could well cause the damage to last further despite the change of environment. No? (also if this alteration by the environment "A" takes a decade to be observable, you may put another similar organism in it and not see any damage to it for months or years). What I'm suggesting is the possibility of inertia in follicle damage that was not considered by Nordström, all the more since it wasn't conducted over a decade or more, if follicles could ever regain their original unaltered structure with time and without external intervention.

As for the absence of problems with transplanted follicles on the galea, one has to remember that follicle damage happens in most cases over many years, and transplanted follicles don't have to face the high levels of testosterone production happening in early adult years.

http://journals.lww.com/plasre...n_Male_Pattern.3.aspx

http://journals.lww.com/plasre...with_Botulinum.79.aspx

Edited: 03/15/2011 at 03:49 AM by cyberprimate
 03/15/2011 04:00 AM
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Celco
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Thanks for the post cyberprimate.

So if you have two brothers. One with hairloss and one without. What is the difference between their scalps?

Does one have a more tightly stretched galea muscle than the other?

Or are one brother's follicles more sensitive to DHT than the others? Or both?

-------------------------
1.25mg Fin daily
Minox foam or liquid intermittently
Nizoral shampoo every 2-3 days
----------------
We need something better than Fin approved that targets the scalp only.
We need much better hair growth stimulants.
 03/15/2011 04:13 AM
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Celco
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Some interesting reading along these lines....

Subcutaneous blood flow in early male pattern baldness.
Klemp P, Peters K, Hansted B.

Abstract
The subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) was measured by the 133Xe washout method in the scalp of 14 patients with early male pattern baldness. Control experiments were performed in 14 normal haired men matched for age. The SBF in the scalp of the normal individuals was about 10 times higher than previously reported SBF values in other anatomical regions. In patients with early male pattern baldness, SBF was 2.6 times lower than the values found in the normal individuals (13.7 +/- 9.6 vs 35.7 +/- 10.5 ml/100 g/min-1). This difference was statistically significant (p much less than 0.001). A reduced nutritive blood flow to the hair follicles might be a significant event in the pathogenesis of early male pattern baldness.



A new apparatus for hair regrowth in male-pattern baldness.
Toshitani S, Nakayama J, Yahata T, Yasuda M, Urabe H.

Abstract
A newly devised apparatus (Scalp-Tension-Relaxer, STR) can efficiently promote hair regrowth in patients with male-pattern baldness. When this apparatus is applied, the scalp is pushed up to relieve tension on the vertex. The efficacy rate of hair regrowth in alopecia patients was 40%. An investigation into the basis for the hair regrowth caused by this apparatus was directed toward the changes in hemodynamics and skin temperature of the scalp. During and after use of this apparatus, subjects exhibited an increase both in the cutaneous blood flow rate (as determined by laser Doppler flowmetry) and in the cutaneous temperature (as determined by thermography).




-------------------------
1.25mg Fin daily
Minox foam or liquid intermittently
Nizoral shampoo every 2-3 days
----------------
We need something better than Fin approved that targets the scalp only.
We need much better hair growth stimulants.
 03/15/2011 06:05 AM
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cyberprimate
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Originally posted by: CelcoSo if you have two brothers. One with hairloss and one without. What is the difference between their scalps?

Does one have a more tightly stretched galea muscle than the other?

Or are one brother's follicles more sensitive to DHT than the others? Or both?


I can imagine the difference is mostly genetic, but in what way does this difference work, who knows.... It could be a combination of both factors if skull expansion is a reality.

BTW, to respond to your earlier question, women do experience genetic hairloss on the galea much more than elsewhere on the scalp.

Female hairloss
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